Egyptian expeditions to mine gold in Nubia introduced her cult to the region during the Middle and New Kingdoms, and New Kingdom pharaohs built several temples to her in the portions of Nubia that they ruled. Do you guys belong to a club ‘cos as soon as he can get his distance badges the better- tell him WELL DONE ! Festivals during the inundation therefore incorporated drink, music, and dance as a way to appease the returning goddess. Hathor is an ancient Egyptian goddess associated, later, with Isis and, earlier, with Sekhmet but eventually was considered the primeval goddess from whom all others were derived. So I imagine a river boat transporting the sacred barque containing the statue, obviously with an entourage from the temple. , As the rulers of the Old Kingdom made an effort to develop towns in Upper and Middle Egypt, several cult centers of Hathor were founded across the region, at sites such as Cusae, Akhmim, and Naga ed-Der.  She also commonly carried a sistrum or a menat necklace.  Prayers to some deities, such as Amun, show that they were thought to punish wrongdoers and heal people who repented for their misbehavior.  In the course of the Middle Kingdom, women were increasingly excluded from the highest priestly positions, at the same time that queens were becoming more closely tied to Hathor's cult. , A pendant found in a Mycenaean tomb at Pylos, from the 16th century BC, bears Hathor's face. https://discoveringegypt.com/tag/festival-barque/ In the Third Intermediate Period, Hathor began to be placed on the floor of the coffin, with Nut on the interior of the lid. Voyage to the Divine Union Feast for MAC and Windows FREE, Karnak Great Court for MAC and Windows FREE, https://discoveringegypt.com/tag/festival-barque/, Who else might be in Pharaoh Tutankhamun’s Tomb, Women of Power and Influence in Ancient Egypt, Voyage to the Divine Union Feast for MAC and Windows FREE App. , The third month of the Egyptian calendar, Hathor or Athyr, was named for the goddess. Images of the Hathor-cow with a child in a papyrus thicket represented his mythological upbringing in a secluded marsh. The last version of the temple was built in the Ptolemaic and Roman Periods and is today one of the best-preserved Egyptian temples from that time. Most Egyptologists who study this story think this woman is Hathor or a goddess like her, one who can be wild and dangerous or benign and erotic.  Hathor was the mother in many of these local triads of gods. These two aspects of the goddess exemplified the Egyptian conception of femininity. Images of cattle appear frequently in the artwork of Predynastic Egypt (before c. 3100 BC), as do images of women with upraised, curved arms reminiscent of the shape of bovine horns.  In the version of this episode in "The Contendings of Horus and Set", Hathor finds Horus with his eyes torn out and heals the wounds with gazelle's milk. She points out that the birth of Horus and Hathor's son Ihy was celebrated at Dendera nine months after the Festival of the Beautiful Reunion, implying that Hathor's visit to Horus represented Ihy's conception.  Related to this story is the myth of the Distant Goddess, from the Late and Ptolemaic periods. The Eye goddess drinks the beer, mistaking it for blood, and in her inebriated state reverts to being the benign and beautiful Hathor. Hiya Mark. After some time, Hathor exposes her genitals to Ra, making him laugh and get up again to perform his duties as ruler of the gods. Some mirror handles were made in the shape of Hathor's face. The "house" referred to may be the sky in which Horus lives, or the goddess's womb from which he, as a sun god, is born each day.  The theology surrounding the pharaoh in the Old Kingdom, unlike that of earlier times, focused heavily on the sun god Ra as king of the gods and father and patron of the earthly king. She was one of several goddesses who acted as the Eye of Ra, Ra's feminine counterpart, and in this form she had a vengeful aspect that protected him from his enemies. During the New Kingdom (c. 1550–1070 BC), goddesses such as Mut and Isis encroached on Hathor's position in royal ideology, but she remained one of the most widely worshipped deities. In the series of love poems from Papyrus Chester Beatty I, from the Twentieth Dynasty (c. 1189–1077 BC), men and women ask Hathor to bring their lovers to them: "I prayed to her [Hathor] and she heard my prayer.  Mirrors were another of her symbols, because in Egypt they were often made of gold or bronze and therefore symbolized the sun disk, and because they were connected with beauty and femininity.  One of Hathor's epithets, "Lady of Mefkat", may have referred specifically to turquoise or to all blue-green minerals.  Traits of Isis, Hathor, and Aphrodite were all combined to justify the treatment of Ptolemaic queens as goddesses. Despite the growing prominence of these deities, Hathor remained important, particularly in relation to fertility, sexuality, and queenship, throughout the New Kingdom. She was mother to Ihy, the god of music and musicians. Hathor part four Sistra had erotic connotations and, by extension, alluded to the creation of new life. Hieroglyph for Hathor: the house of Horus In ancient Egyptian "Neb Heru" /NEBHERU/ House of Horus/Venus was known to have had different places in the solar system in the past before stabilizing. She was one of the most important and popular deities throughout the history of Ancient Egypt.  In the late periods of Egyptian history, the form of Hathor from Dendera and the form of Horus from Edfu were considered husband and wife and in different versions of the myth of the Distant Goddess, Hathor-Raettawy was the consort of Montu and Hathor-Tefnut the consort of Shu.  It was occupied from the middle of the Middle Kingdom to near the end of the New. She was one of the most important and popular deities throughout the history of Ancient Egypt.  Tombs' festival imagery, however, may refer to festivals involving Hathor, such as the Festival of Drunkenness, or to the private feasts, which were also closely connected with her.  She built several temples to Hathor and placed her own mortuary temple, which incorporated a chapel dedicated to the goddess, at Deir el-Bahari, which had been a cult site of Hathor since the Middle Kingdom. The statue of Hathor would travel from Dendara to the temple of Horus at Edfu, a distance of 106 miles before the festival kicked off. Hathor foi una divinidá cósmica, diosa nutricia, diosa del amor, de l'allegría, la danza y les artes musicales na mitoloxía exipcia.El so nome significa "El templu de Horus" o "La morada de Horus", pa identificala como madre del mesmu y, dacuando, la so esposa.. Nome exipciu Hut-Hor (Ḥwt Ḥr). HATOR Hathor è una divinità antichissima della mitologia egizia, multiforme e collegata all'archetipo delle Grandi Madri protostoriche, il cui nome significa "casa di Horus".  The Seven Hathors were sometimes portrayed as a set of seven cows, accompanied by a minor sky and afterlife deity called the Bull of the West. Over night the sacred barque would be taken from the boat to rest in this building.  As both the king's wife and his heir's mother, Hathor was the mythic counterpart of human queens. Hathor’s worship originated in early dynastic times (3rd millennium bce). The palette suggests that this cow was also linked with the sky, as were several goddesses from later times who were represented in this form: Hathor, Mehet-Weret, and Nut. , Hathor's maternal aspects can be compared with those of Isis and Mut, yet there are many contrasts between them. On the way she would stop off at towns and villages and her sacred barque, containing her statue, would have rested within a local barque station over night.  The falcon god Horus represented, among other things, the sun and sky. Thus, non-royal women disappeared from the high ranks of Hathor's priesthood, although women continued to serve as musicians and singers in temple cults across Egypt. , The afterlife also had a sexual aspect. Both styles of sistrum can bear the Hathor mask on the handle, and Hathoric columns often incorporate the naos sistrum shape above the goddess's head. I will be anxious for anymore. After the Egyptians abandoned the site in the Twentieth Dynasty, however, the Midianites converted the shrine to a tent shrine devoted to their own deities. , Hathor was one of a handful of deities, including Amun, Ptah, and Thoth, who were commonly prayed to for help with personal problems.  Hathor's relationship with Horus gave a healing aspect to her character, as she was said to have restored Horus's missing eye or eyes after Set attacked him. During the beginning of the Middle Kingdom, Mentuhotep II established a permanent cult center for her in the necropolis at Deir el-Bahari. Xa que o faraón é identificado con Horus, Hathor é considerada como a nai divina de cada monarca reinante (entre os títulos reais figura o de Fillo de Hathor). , Some animals other than cattle could represent Hathor. In the early New Kingdom, for instance, Osiris, Anubis, and Hathor were the three deities most commonly found in royal tomb decoration.  The Timna Valley, on the fringes of the Egyptian empire on the east side of the peninsula, was the site of seasonal mining expeditions during the New Kingdom.  Old Kingdom rulers donated resources only to temples dedicated to particular kings or to deities closely connected with kingship. Reliefs in Old Kingdom tombs show men and women performing a ritual called "shaking the papyrus". Hathor part five , Ancient Egyptians prefixed the names of the deceased with Osiris's name to connect them with his resurrection. , The Eye of Ra protected the sun god from his enemies and was often represented as a uraeus, or rearing cobra, or as a lioness. Festivities in her honor took place throughout the month, although they are not recorded in the texts from Dendera. This mask-like face was placed on the capitals of columns beginning in the late Old Kingdom.  The Egyptologist Robyn Gillam suggests that these diverse forms emerged when the royal goddess promoted by the Old Kingdom court subsumed many local goddesses worshipped by the general populace, who were then treated as manifestations of her. Different types of offerings may have symbolized different goals on the part of the donor, but their meaning is usually unknown.  Nevertheless, when the Greeks referred to Egyptian gods by the names of their own gods (a practice called interpretatio graeca), they sometimes called Hathor Aphrodite.  Barbara Richter argues that the festival represented all three things at once. Her principal animal form was that of a cow, and she was strongly associated with motherhood. The Dendera Temple Complex covers an area of 40,000 square meters ( sq. , Hathor was a solar deity, a feminine counterpart to sun gods such as Horus and Ra, and was a member of the divine entourage that accompanied Ra as he sailed through the sky in his barque. As suggested by her name, she was often thought of as both Horus's mother and consort. The moment of arrival is going to be the subject of this reconstruction. Statue of Hathor (Luxor Museum) In Egyptian mythology, Hathor (Egyptian for house of Horus) was originally a personification of the Milky Way, which was seen as the milk that flowed from the udders of a heavenly cow.Hathor was an ancient goddess, worshipped as a cow-deity from at least 2700 BC, during the 2nd Dynasty, and possibly even by the King Scorpion. The first images of the Hathor-cow suckling the king date to his reign, and several priestesses of Hathor were depicted as though they were his wives, although he may not have actually married them. In some versions of the Distant Goddess myth, the wandering Eye's wildness abated when she was appeased with products of civilization like music, dance, and wine.  Some Canaanite artworks depict a nude goddess with a curling wig taken from Hathor's iconography. When she appears in this form, the tresses on either side of her face often curl into loops. , Some Egyptians also left written prayers to Hathor, inscribed on stelae or written as graffiti. The name Hathor means “estate of Horus ” and may not be her original name. Horus. , Many female royals, though not reigning queens, held positions in the cult during the Old Kingdom. Life and order were thought to be dependent on Ra's activity, and the story implies that Hathor averted the disastrous consequences of his idleness.  Cows are venerated in many cultures, including ancient Egypt, as symbols of motherhood and nourishment, because they care for their calves and provide humans with milk. Egyptian texts often speak of the manifestations of the goddess as "Seven Hathors" or, less commonly, of many more Hathors—as many as 362. , Like Meskhenet, another goddess who presided over birth, Hathor was connected with shai, the Egyptian concept of fate, particularly when she took the form of the Seven Hathors. Hathor ascended with Ra and became his mythological wife, and thus divine mother of the pharaoh. I loved watching the Archery Tournament of you and your very cute son. How delightful it is to see how the many temples and other edifices appeared to the ancient Egyptians instead of the ruins we see today. Within this enclosure are various structures, including the Temple of the Birth of Isis, a Roman mammisi (attributed either to the reign of Trajan or Nero), a sanatorium, and a sacred lake.  The only goddesses who used the was were those, like Hathor, who were linked with the Eye of Ra. For example, apart from …  Once pacified, the goddess returns to become the consort of the sun god or of the god who brings her back. Hathor è una divinità antichissima della mitologia egizia, multiforme e collegata all'archetipo delle Grandi Madri protostoriche, il cui nome significa "casa di Horus". All of this occurred after the death of Horus’ father Osiris fragmented into pieces.  Hathor's diversity reflects the range of traits that the Egyptians associated with goddesses.  Other children of Hathor included a minor deity from the town of Hu, named Neferhotep, and several child forms of Horus. , Hatshepsut, a woman who ruled as a pharaoh in the early New Kingdom, emphasized her relationship to Hathor in a different way.  She used names and titles that linked her to a variety of goddesses, including Hathor, so as to legitimize her rule in what was normally a male position. In Egypt, she was one of the deities commonly invoked in private prayers and votive offerings, particularly by women desiring children. , Many of Hathor's annual festivals were celebrated with drinking and dancing that served a ritual purpose. , Tomb art from the Eighteenth Dynasty often shows people drinking, dancing, and playing music, as well as holding menat necklaces and sistra—all imagery that alluded to Hathor. In solar ideology, Ra's union with the sky goddess allowed his own rebirth.  The Theban necropolis, for example, was often portrayed as a stylized mountain with the cow of Hathor emerging from it.  The milk was equated with water of the Nile inundation and thus fertility. It was made famous by a carving that many believe depicts an electrical lightbulb. In her form as Hesat she is shown as a pure white cow carrying a tray of food on her head as her udders flow with milk. I eagerly await your finished artwork.  Women carry bouquets of flowers, drunken revelers play drums, and people and animals from foreign lands dance for her as she enters the temple's festival booth. On the way she would stop off at towns and villages and her sacred barque, containing her statue, would have rested within a local barque station over night. Hathor is the daughter of Ra. This shopping mecca offers a collection of over 120 stores.  When Hathor was depicted as a uraeus, it represented the ferocious and protective aspects of her character. As time passed, Hathor’s relationships and manifestations became increasingly complex and confusing. , Hathor was praised for her beautiful hair. Must admit I was rooting for your son. Ra was sometimes portrayed inside the disk, which Troy interprets as meaning that the Eye goddess was thought of as a womb from which the sun god was born.  So strong was Hathor's link to Byblos that texts from Dendera say she resided there. Hathor crossed boundaries between worlds, helping deceased souls in the transition to the afterlife. Mut was the usual consort of Amun, the preeminent deity during the New Kingdom who was often linked with Ra. The festival of Divine Union of the goddess Hathor and Horus is something I’ve written about in the past and would like to illustrate. , She was one of many goddesses to take the role of the Eye of Ra, a feminine personification of the disk of the sun and an extension of Ra's own power. Cloths painted with images of Hathor were common, as were plaques and figurines depicting her animal forms. Hathor in Pop-Culture & influence in the modern era. Columns of this style were used in many temples to Hathor and other goddesses. It’s been more than a year since I made a temple reconstruction. The statue of Hathor would travel from Dendara to the temple of Horus at Edfu, a distance of 106 miles before the festival kicked off.  After the end of the Old Kingdom it surpassed her Memphite temples in importance. Isis's devotion to her husband and care for their child represented a more socially acceptable form of love than Hathor's uninhibited sexuality, and Mut's character was more authoritative than sexual. Interpretazioni E Simbologia Del Dipinto Nefertari E La Dea Hathor All Text & artwork is © Mark Millmore. Finished article. , As an afterlife deity, Hathor appeared frequently in funerary texts and art. , Hathor's sexual side was seen in some short stories.  When Hathor does clearly appear, her horns curve outward, rather than inward like those in Predynastic art. Thomas Schneider interprets the text as implying that between his two encounters with the goddess the herdsman has done something to pacify her. Hathor, in ancient Egyptian religion, goddess of the sky, of women, and of fertility and love. Goddesses' milk was a sign of divinity and royal status. , Beginning in the Late Period (664–323 BC), temples focused on the worship of a divine family: an adult male deity, his wife, and their immature son.  In the Ptolemaic period (305–30 BC), when Greeks governed Egypt and their religion developed a complex relationship with that of Egypt, the Ptolemaic dynasty adopted and modified the Egyptian ideology of kingship.  The welcoming afterlife goddess was often portrayed as a goddess in the form of a tree, giving water to the deceased. , Several temples in Ptolemaic times, including that of Dendera, observed the Egyptian new year with a series of ceremonies in which images of the temple deity were supposed to be revitalized by contact with the sun god.  For these reasons, Gillam calls her "a type of deity rather than a single entity". Hathor took many forms and appeared in a wide variety of roles.  Mentuhotep II, who became the first pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom despite having no relation to the Old Kingdom rulers, sought to legitimize his rule by portraying himself as Hathor's son. He orders that beer be dyed red and poured out over the land.  In "The Contendings of Horus and Set", a New Kingdom short story about the dispute between those two gods, Ra is upset after being insulted by another god, Babi, and lies on his back alone. His right eye was associated with the sun god, Ra.The eye symbol represents the marking around the eye of the falcon, including the "teardrop" marking sometimes found below the eye.The mirror image, or left eye, sometimes represented the moon and the god Djehuti (). , More temples were dedicated to Hathor than to any other Egyptian goddess. Hathor (dall'originale egizio: ḥwt-ḥr; che significa Casa di Horus, ellenizzato Ἅθωρ, Hathor) è una divinità egizia appartenente alla religione dell'antico Egitto, dea della gioia, dell' amore, della maternità e …  An example is the Festival of Drunkenness, commemorating the return of the Eye of Ra, which was celebrated on the twentieth day of the month of Thout at temples to Hathor and to other Eye goddesses. Hathor was often depicted as a cow, symbolizing her maternal and celestial aspect, although her most common form was a woman wearing a headdress of cow horns and a sun disk. " A hymn to the goddess Raet-Tawy as a form of Hathor at the temple of Medamud describes the Festival of Drunkenness as part of her mythic return to Egypt. Thus, Hathor, as Imentet, often appears on tombs, welcoming the deceased person as her child into a blissful afterlife. , Amulet of Hathor as a uraeus wearing a naos headdress, early to mid-first millennium BC, Naos sistrum with Hathor's face, 305–282 BC, Mirror with a face of Hathor on the handle, fifteenth century BC, Head of Hathor with cats on her headdress, from a clapper, late second to early first millennium BC, The Malqata Menat necklace, fourteenth century BC, Hathoric capital from the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut, fifteenth century BC, During the Early Dynastic Period, Neith was the preeminent goddess at the royal court, while in the Fourth Dynasty, Hathor became the goddess most closely linked with the king. If so, Horus only came to be linked with Isis and Osiris as the Osiris myth emerged during the Old Kingdom.  Amenhotep III and Ramesses II both built temples in Nubia that celebrated their respective queens as manifestations of female deities, including Hathor: Amenhotep's wife Tiye at Sedeinga and Ramesses's wife Nefertari at the Small Temple of Abu Simbel.  The dancing, eating and drinking that took place during the Festival of Drunkenness represented the opposite of the sorrow, hunger, and thirst that the Egyptians associated with death.  On one day of the festival, these images were carried out to a shrine where primordial deities such as the sun god and the Ennead were said to be buried. The hand he used for this act, the Hand of Atum, represented the female aspect of himself and could be personified by Hathor, Nebethetepet, or another goddess, Iusaaset.  At Kom Ombo, Hathor's local form, Tasenetnofret, was mother to Horus's son Panebtawy. In Egypt, Hathor was the goddess of love, beauty, dancing, music, and fertility. At sunset the god entered the body of the goddess, impregnating her and fathering the deities born from her womb at sunrise: himself and the Eye goddess, who would later give birth to him.  Images of Nut were often painted or incised inside coffins, indicating the coffin was her womb, from which the occupant would be reborn in the afterlife.  Many kings made additions to the temple complex through Egyptian history. On the first day of the new year, the first day of the month of Thoth, the Hathor image was carried up to the roof to be bathed in genuine sunlight.  The text of the first century AD Insinger Papyrus likens a faithful wife, the mistress of a household, to Mut, while comparing Hathor to a strange woman who tempts a married man.  At Jebel Barkal, a site sacred to Amun, the Kushite king Taharqa built a pair of temples, one dedicated to Hathor and one to Mut as consorts of Amun, replacing New Kingdom Egyptian temples that may have been dedicated to these same goddesses. When in the role of Imentet, Hathor wore the emblem of the west upon her head instead of the horned headdress. The endpoint of the journey was the Temple of Horus at Edfu, where the Hathor statue from Dendera met that of Horus of Edfu and the two were placed together.  In New Kingdom funerary texts and artwork, the afterlife was often illustrated as a pleasant, fertile garden, over which Hathor sometimes presided. She is usually depicted as a woman with the head of a cow, ears of a cow, or simply in cow form.  Her role as a sky goddess was also linked to the afterlife.  In the First Intermediate Period (c. 2181–2055) her cult statue from Dendera was periodically carried to the Theban necropolis.  A few cities farther north in the Nile Delta, such as Yamu and Terenuthis, also had temples to her. Hathor è anche una divinità del cielo e in questa versione si diceva che proteggesse il dio aquila Horus nel suo ventre. More than any other deity, she exemplifies the Egyptian perception of femininity. Baixo a forma dunha vaca acolle e protexe aos defuntos, ofrecendo alimentos aos mortos.  The version from Hathor's temple at Dendera emphasizes that she, as a female solar deity, was the first being to emerge from the primordial waters that preceded creation, and her life-giving light and milk nourished all living things.  In the late Ptolemaic and Roman Periods, many temples contained a creation myth that adapted long-standing ideas about creation. It included a shrine to Hathor that was probably deserted during the off-season.  A temple to Hathor as Lady of Byblos was built during the reign of Thutmose III, although it may simply have been a shrine within the temple of Baalat. Now I have made a barque station before so rather than re-invent the wheel, I’ll adapt one of my old models – that should speed things up a bit. The link between Hathor and deceased women was maintained into the Roman Period, the last stage of ancient Egyptian religion before its extinction. This cosmic mother goddess was often represented as a cow. She was one of the most important and popular deities throughout the history of Ancient Egypt… Quote Source: Wikipedia. , Hathor was often depicted as a cow bearing the sun disk between her horns, especially when shown nursing the king. Thank you so much for sharing your beautiful works with us to help us imagine Ancient Egypt. Many of these women were members of the royal family. The text describes these exotic goods as Hathor's gift to the pharaoh. In the Osiris myth, the murdered god Osiris was resurrected when he copulated with Isis and conceived Horus.  Many Egyptologists regard this festival as a ritual marriage between Horus and Hathor, although Martin Stadler challenges this view, arguing that it instead represented the rejuvenation of the buried creator gods. In some cases, women were called "Osiris-Hathor", indicating that they benefited from the revivifying power of both deities. To use the materials on this site please eMail me and ask permission.  The daily ritual was largely the same in every Egyptian temple, although the goods given as offerings could vary according to which deity received them. Hathor is one of the main goddesses. , After the New Kingdom, Isis increasingly overshadowed Hathor and other goddesses as she took on their characteristics. , In contrast, the Nubians in the south fully incorporated Hathor into their religion. The significance of this rite is not known, but inscriptions sometimes say it was performed "for Hathor", and shaking papyrus stalks produces a rustling sound that may have been likened to the rattling of a sistrum.  Offerings of sistra may have been meant to appease the goddess's dangerous aspects and bring out her positive ones, while phalli represented a prayer for fertility, as shown by an inscription found on one example. She was often regarded as a specialized manifestation of Hathor. Hathor (Ancient Egyptian: ḥwt-ḥr "House of Horus", Greek: Ἁθώρ Hathōr) was a major goddess in ancient Egyptian religion who played a wide variety of roles. He has a very cute smile. The uraeus was a common motif in Egyptian art and could represent a variety of goddesses who were identified with the Eye of Ra. , In addition to formal and public rituals at temples, Egyptians privately worshipped deities for personal reasons, including at their homes. ft.), and is surrounded by a large mudbrick wall. She was also worshipped in the temples of her male consorts. , Just as she crossed the boundary between Egypt and foreign lands, Hathor passed through the boundary between the living and the Duat, the realm of the dead. Hathor (ḥwt-ḥr, Egyptian for Horus's enclosure), is an Ancient Egyptian goddess who personified the principles of love, beauty, music, motherhood and joy. , Hathor took many forms and appeared in a wide variety of roles.  In Roman times, terracotta figurines, sometimes found in a domestic context, depicted a woman with an elaborate headdress exposing her genitals, as Hathor did to cheer up Ra.